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Egyptian history

اذهب الى الأسفل

Egyptian history

مُساهمة من طرف layaly في الثلاثاء 25 أكتوبر 2011 - 23:57

Egyptian history

Historical Introduction



Egypt's history is the history of human civilization, where Humanity The Egyptian civilization of ancient civilizations before the peoples of the world .. Civilization, a leader in innovations and Amaúrha and arts where scientists stunned the world and Pfla, flag it civilization continuum of human interaction with the Egyptian and left in his mind and sentiments mark



Egypt was the first country in the ancient world knew the principles of writing, inventing characters and hieroglyphic signs, and the ancient Egyptians were keen to identify and record their history and the events that they made and they lived, and in this step of civilization great has moved Egypt from prehistoric times and became the first country in the world with a history written, and have systems that were considered fixed and all the standards of human civilizations



The role of Egypt's cultural, historical and religious place where she was embraced by the prophets. The land on which the steps followed by the prophets and apostles .. Came the father of the prophets Abraham and Hagar got married to her .. According to Yusuf peace be upon him and became a minister and followed his father to Jacob .. And Dar greater dialogue between God and Moses on its territory and has resorted to Egypt to the Holy Family of the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus and Joseph and they have a historical journey in a blessed land .. God chose the Almighty, Egypt in particular to be the hippocampus, which shelter the sky wants to be an oasis of peace and security has always been monotheistic religions and Forums



I have been of the land of Egypt, multiple civilizations Egypt was the cradle of the Pharaonic civilization, and an incubator of civilization, Greek and Romanian, a beacon of civilization, Coptic, and the protector of the Islamic civilization. We have characterized the people of Egypt along the history of love, tolerance, friendliness and generosity that has characterized this people, the sons of Egypt, where mixed into the fabric of one solid and so is always the people of Egypt



The civilization began in Egypt since prehistoric times by about a hundred thousand years, and considered the ancient Egyptians, since the late Paleolithic (10 thousand years BC) as a separate nation and called themselves the people of Egypt the land or people



And raised Mmketan in Egypt, one in the north with its capital Bhutto in the western Delta and its logo papyrus and worship God Hororamzehe snake and the other in the south, its capital, betray or Cape Current and logo lotus and worship God six have had several attempts in the prehistoric era to unite the kingdoms of the north and south, and succeeded King Mena about a year 3200 BC. m in the unification of North and South, and established the capital of the United State at the head of the Delta and called (White Castle) and is known to as the (Memphis) or (Memphis), founding the first country in history appear as a political entity with the capital and the central government and administrative apparatus Army, police, education and spend




Beginning the Pharaonic era:



Extend the Pharaonic era in Egypt's history to about three thousand years from 3200 BC until Alexander the Great invaded Egypt in 323 BC saw Egypt during the Pharaonic era many of the stages of the Renaissance and the progress that has left a legacy tremendous manifestation of the effects of culture and architecture, science and the arts.



Historians are divided Pharaonic era in Egypt's history into three consecutive sections are:

-

The Old

-

Central State

-

The modern state



It also divides the historians of this period to thirty dynasty divided into three phases of the history of Egypt:


-

Ancient times (two families 1 and 2):



Return of the king Mena thanks to achieve political unity of Egypt about the year 3200 BC. M, and was able to establish the first dynasty in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, and had wanted to believe Mina and unity of the country he stayed near the capital city of Delta, later named Memphis, and this unit was an important factor in the rise of Egypt in the various aspects of life.


-

Old Kingdom (dynasties from 3 to 6):



Aattabrasr this state the period of Egypt's youth was marked by stability, security and peace, which is pleased to offer economically, and culturally and technically, and has held the banner of rule of the kings of the old state of the builders of the pyramids about 2800 BC. , After having moved the throne to Memphis at the hands of the pharaoh Zoser's oldest known pyramid is the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt and civilization flourished in the days of this country, not least because of the huge pyramids of Giza to King Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure.


-

Average of the first era (the families of the 7 to 10):

-

This era began about the year 2200 BC. M while hiked the reins from the hand of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II even managed to unite the country again.


-

Middle Kingdom (dynasties 11 and 12):



After that enables Mentuhotep II of good about the year 2065 BC. M from the reunification of the country has established a strong government was able to strengthen the system and create security, which helped the country's economic recovery and progress Arts and Architecture, and began in 2000 BC. M the rule of a great man is the owner of Amenemhat I credit the largest in the Renaissance building that appeared days of the Middle Kingdom.



The Kings and queens of the Twelfth Dynasty fame in the fields of politics, war, culture, civilization and religion, such as Ahmose hero of liberation, Amenhotep I, the just passed a law to ban forced labor and the development of standards of fair wages and incentives, Thutmose I, the warrior who expanded the Egyptian borders north and south, spread education and expanded in the open Mines and mining industry, and Tuthmosis II and Tuthmosis III, the emperor's unique military genius and the first great conqueror in the history of the world, and Thutmose IV diplomat, who was first interested in the codification and the registration of international treaties, and Amenhotep III, the richest king in the ancient world, which opened the school houses of life to promote education and Fine and Applied Arts.



And Akhenaten, the first combined and the first king in the history of humanity called for the unity of God the Creator of everything, and Tutankhamun, who won fame in the modern world, the most famous queens of this family, for example, Queen Ahhotep wife of King Seqenenre, and Queen Ahmose Nefertari wife Ahmose I and Queen T-girl people and the wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti wife of Akhenaten and Great Queen Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt for nearly twenty years and reached Egypt in its administration the highest peak in the culture, architecture and international trade, where the Mission sent a merchant marine and scientific Puntland also built one of the greatest architectural monuments and the most splendor and luxury, a temple of Deir el-Bahri on the western shore of the Nile in the face of Luxor a temple is unique in its design and has no parallel between the temples of the ancient world are all, as This era also witnessed a revolution Akhenaten's religious calling to the worship of one God and the symbol of a sun disc and established a new capital of the country and he called Akhetaten


-

The second intermediate period (dynasties 13 to 17):



During the era of the Twelfth Dynasty about 1725 BC. M the pastoral tribes who lived in Palestine and called the name of the Hyksos raid on Egypt and the invasion of its territory, and when he took the power of the Hyksos in a weak, suppose princes a good fight in order to recover the freedom of their country stolen and may God wrote them success and enable Ahmose of the seizure of their capital in Delta and expelled from the country.


-

The modern state (the families of the 18 to 20):



After the expulsion of the Hyksos, Ahmose returned to his country in 1571 BC. M, where he spent the revolutions of the Nubians to the south and headed to the internal reform in the country and is interested in the establishment of Army worker organizer and Slha all weapons known at that time and gave him a wheel war, and is Ramses II of the most famous kings of this country are wars last efforts made by the kings of the modern state in order to maintain the The unit ended with the king of the Hittites opposes the signing of non-aggression treaty between the parties after the Battle of Kadesh, and this treaty is the first peace treaty in history, Egypt has become a major force, and thus became a great empire sprawling.




Late Period (Dynasties 21 to 30):



The closing chapter of this era in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, where she was the family since the rule of 21 and 28 for the family until the occupation by the Assyrians in 670 BC. M, and the Persians until the Pharaonic era ended with the family of 30 and the entry of Alexander the Great, Egypt






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