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Nefertari

اذهب الى الأسفل

Nefertari

مُساهمة من طرف ???? في السبت 2 أكتوبر 2010 - 23:21

Birth: c. 1290 BC
Death: c. 1254 BC (36 years old)
Father: ?
Mother: ?
Spouse: Ramses II
Period: New Kingdom / 19th dynasty


Queen Nefertari’s life holds all the mystery, allure and fascination that have come to characterize the ancient Egyptian civilization. The evidence that archeologists and historians have been able to piece together provide a captivating look into her life.



Queen Besides Ramses II
Her name, Nefertari Merytmut (meaning The Beautiful Companion, Beloved of Mut), embodied the majesty and stature of queen Nefertari. At the young age of 13 she married the 15 year old Ramses II, who would come to be famously known as Ramses the Great.

What was probably a politically inspired union would over time blossom into an amorous relationship wherein Ramses 2 celebrated his love for her with monuments and poetry dedicated to her honor. The many titles ascribed to her attest to the esteem Ramses held for her and the various roles she undertook in her function as queen. Designations such as Sweet of Love, Bride of God and Lady of the Two Lands, demonstrate her positions as lover, priestess and political functionary. She is known to have even accompanied Ramses, in some cases, on military campaigns.

Nefertari was the only Egyptian queen, besides queen Tiy, who was deified while she was still
alive.


Family Life


Nefertari
While it is quite certain that she had roots in Egyptian royalty, much speculation still surrounds her actual family lineage. Some scholars have even suggested that she might have been the daughter of King Seti I, the father of Ramses II and therefore his half sister.

It was not unusual for royalty to marry within their own families as it ensured the continuance of the dynastic line. Nefertari and Ramses 2's own daughter, Meritamen, allegedly went on to become Ramses' wife after Nefertari’s early death around the time of 1254 B.C.


Ramses and Nefertari had at least six children together, four sons and two daughters:

Prince Amun-her-khepeshef: the firstborn son. He was the crown prince and the commander of the troops.
Prince Pareherwenemef: the second son of Nefertari. He was present at the battle of Kadesh.
Prince Meryre
Prince Meryatum: the last child of Nefertari and Ramses. He was the high priest of Ra in Heliopolis.
Princess Meritamen: later became the Great Royal Wife of her father, Ramses II
Princess Henuttawy


None of their sons would succeed their father’s reign on the throne as they all died prior to Ramses II’s death. Among the four other wives Ramses had during Nefertari’s reign, she would maintain her unparalleled status among them, as two monuments in particular reveal
.




The Tomb of Nefertari

Nefertari’s tomb and temple serve as testaments to the love Ramses had for her and the inestimable role she played in Egyptian life. The tomb of Nefertari (QV66) is located in the upper Nile valley in what was once the city of Thebes, but now is Luxor.

The area designated the Valley of the Queens houses Nefertari’s richly adorned burial chamber. Uncovered in 1904 by the Italian archaeologist Schiaparelli, it stands out as being one of the most beautifully constructed and preserved artifacts of ancient Egypt.

The entrance into the tombs sits on the bottom of the Mountain of Thebes and leads down through a series of rooms before arriving at Nefertari’s burial chamber. Excerpts from the Book of the Dead and testaments to Nefertari’s life adorn every wall in vibrant colors and masterful design. They reflect Egyptian art at its finest.


Isis and Nefertari
The tomb has the resemblance of a house, with an intimacy that is rare for an ancient Egyptian tomb. The murals picture queen Nefertari's life and her journey to the hereafter. In the last chamber Isis and Nefertari are pictured. Isis holds Nefertari's hand and gives her an ankh, the symbol for eternal life.


There's also some poetry written by Ramses II on the walls of the burial chamber, for example:

"My love is unique - no one can rival her, for she is the most beautiful woman alive. Just by passing, she has stolen away my heart."

Unfortunately the tomb was found by tomb robbers who took all the treasure. Nefertari's mummy and sarcophagus were stolen as well. Some pieces of her mummy were found in the burial chamber and are on display in the Egyptian Museum in Turin.


The tomb of Nefertari was opened for visitors in 1995, but closed again in 2003, due to purposes related to the preservation of the tomb. Sometimes special permits (with and expensive admission) are issued for specialists or people on specialized tours. To find out if the tomb of Nefertari is now open, contact the Egyptian tourism office
.






Nefertari's Temple in Abu Simbel

Situated on the west bank of the Nile River in southern Egypt, Ramses II had 2 temples erected. The Great Temple is in honor of himself and the gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty and Ptah.

The Small Temple is in honor of Nefertari and the goddess Hathor. Three colossus statues, carved into the mountain side, stand on each side of the entrance. Interestingly, Nefertari is seen in equal height to Ramses in the arrangement, a sure indication of the reverence she commanded.

Nefertari's temple at Abu Simbel is the second temple in the history of ancient Egypt that was dedicated to a queen, the first one being Nefertiti's temple, built by pharaoh Akhenaton.

Inside, a range of images, statues, hieroglyphics and inscriptions show Ramses II in different heroic acts, and Nefertari and he paying homage to the gods. On the way to the unveiling of the temple, Nefertari would fall ill and soon after, on the journey up the Nile, pass away
.


????
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